Research Methodology

Paper Code: 
ECO 141
Max. Marks: 
Unit I: 
Unit I
  • Introduction to Research Methodology: Meaning and definition of research, process of research, types of research (Basic and Applied), Research approaches.
  • Research Design: Purpose of research and time dimensions based research design: Explorative, Descriptive and Explanatory, Cross-sectional and Longitudinal research studies.
Unit II: 
Unit II

Planning of Research:

  • Sampling Techniques: Census and Sampling methods, Probability and Non-Probability sampling procedures, Sample size determination
  • Variables: Meaning, Types of Variables.
  • Hypothesis: Meaning, Types and criteria of construction of hypothesis.
  • Distribution pattern: Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Poisson’s distribution.
Unit III: 
Unit III
  • Data Collection Techniques :Primary and Secondary data collection techniques
  • Statistics: Meaning, Importance, Limitations, Classifications and Tabulation of data, discrete and continuous variables. Frequency Distributions and Cumulative frequency distribution, Diagrammatic and Graphical presentation of data
  • Measure of Central Tendency: Mean, Median and Mode
  • Measure of Dispersion: Range, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation and standard deviation, coefficient of variation.
  • Correlation and Regression analysis
Unit IV: 
Unit IV
  • Scaling Techniques: Purpose of Scaling Techniques, Types of scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio Scales.
  • Parametric tests: Sampling Distribution and Standard Error. Element of Testing a Statistical Hypothesis- Formulation of the problem, Types of errors. Level of significance, large sample test for proportions, single mean and difference in two means. Small sample test- Application of Student’s t- test for small sample for single mean, difference in two means (independent and paired-t). ANOVA
  • Non-parametric analysis: Chi-square test for population variance, Krukal Wallis H Test, Mann Whitney U – test.
Unit V: 
Unit V

·         Introduction to various Statistical Softwares: SAS, AMOS, SPSS, etc.

·         Basics of SPSS: Reading Data, Using Data Editor, Examining summary statistics for individual variables, creating and editing charts, working with output, sorting and selecting data.

·         Presentation and Report writing:

                                i.            Report Writing: Format of research report, presentation (Tables, Charts, Diagrams, Labeling), footnote, endnote, bibliography, references.

                              ii.            The elements of research project

  1. Kothari, C.R. (Second Edition), Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques, Wishwa Publication, New Delhi.
  2. Luck, David J. and Rubin, Ronald S., Marketing Research, Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi.
  3. Levin, Richard I. and Rubin, David S., Statistics for Management, Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi


  1. Goon, Gupta and Das: Fundamentals of Statistics, Vol. I and II Snedecor and Cochran, Statistical Methods, Oxford and IBH Publishers.
  2. Shukla,M.C. and Gulshan S.S., Statistics Theory and Practice, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.
  3. Gupta, S.P., Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.
  4. Gupta, S.C. and Kapoor V.K., Fundamental of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi
  5. Simpson and Kafka: Basic Statistics, Oxford and IBH Publishers.
  6. Badarkar, P.L. and Wilkinson T.S. (2000), Methodology and Techniques of Social Research, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai
Academic Session: